Moreover, Protestants have elaborate and systematic tenets regarding the End Times that are as intricate as they are novel. The two most debated of these doctrines are those of the Rapture and The Millennial Rule of Christ (aka, Chiliasm from the ancient Greek word khiliasmos, meaning a "thousand"). This post will treat of the Rapture briefly, and focus on Chiliasm. I hear many people (including Vatican II sect members) that Christ will come to rule on Earth for a thousand years. This post will explain why no such occurrence will take place.
Originating in the 1700s and popularized in the 1800s, various Protestant sects began to teach that Christians will be taken up in the sky by God before the Antichrist rules the world, after which there will be a literal one thousand year rule of Christ on Earth. Even among Evangelical Protestants, they argue over whether the rapture will take place before, in the middle of, or after the Great Tribulation (referred to as pre-trib, mid-trib, and post-trib, respectively). The term "rapture" comes from the Latin word rapiemur--"will be caught up." It is used in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-17, one of the "proof-texts" for Protestants: "Brothers and sisters, we do not want you to be uninformed about those who sleep in death, so that you do not grieve like the rest of mankind, who have no hope. For we believe that Jesus died and rose again, and so we believe that God will bring with Jesus those who have fallen asleep in Him. According to the Lord’s word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And so we will be with the Lord forever." (Emphasis mine).
Surprisingly, some Traditionalists think the rapture to be true, or at least possible, not realizing it conflicts with Church teaching. Protestants point to Scripture verses such as St. Matthew 24:40-41, "Two men will be in the field; one will be taken and the other left. Two women will be grinding with a hand mill; one will be taken and the other left." And St. Luke 17:34-35, "I tell you, on that night two people will be in one bed; one will be taken and the other left. Two women will be grinding grain together; one will be taken and the other left.”
Remember, all of the Bible must be read with Sacred Tradition and the guidance of the Magisterium. Ironically, right after the main "rapture verse" (quoted above in First Thessalonians), in the second epistle to the Thessalonians, we read, "So then, brothers and sisters, stand firm and hold fast to the traditions we passed on to you, whether by word of mouth or by letter."(Emphasis mine).
2 Peter 1:20 states, "Understanding this first, that no prophecy of scripture is made by private interpretation." (Emphasis mine). Finally, in 2 Peter 3:16, "As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are certain things hard to be understood, which the unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, to their own destruction."
Keeping all this in mind, what are we to make of the "rapture" as Traditionalists? Those Biblical "proof- texts" were always taught to be referring to the Second Coming of Christ. For the "rapture Protestants" He comes back, not once "to judge the living and the dead," but twice. This is heresy. The "caught up" refers to the resurrection of the bodies of the just on the Last Day. As for the "one taken, one left," if you read the next chapter in St. Matthew (chapter 25), it speaks of the sheep and the goats being separated on His right and left. The sheep (the Faithful) go body and soul to Heaven, while the goats (the damned) go body and soul to Hell. All pre-Vatican II theologians taught that the Church must endure throughout the Great Tribulation during which the Antichrist comes into power. "But he that shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved." (St. Matthew 24:13).
The "Millennial Rule" of Christ
Before I get into the specifics of the Millennial Rule of Christ (MRC), it will be necessary to explain the competing views as to when it occurs in relation to the Rapture. I found a Protestant source which succinctly and correctly captures the essence of the four views held:
Dispensational premillennialists hold that Christ will come before a seven-year period of intense tribulation to take His church (living and dead) into heaven. After this period of fulfillment of divine wrath, He shall then return to rule from a holy city (i.e., the New Jerusalem) over the earthly nations for one thousand years. After these thousand years, Satan, who was bound up during Christ's earthly reign, will be loosed to deceive the nations, gather an army of the deceived, and take up to battle against the Lord. This battle will end in both the judgment of the wicked and Satan and the entrance into the eternal state of glory by the righteous. This view is called premillenialism because it places the return of Christ before the millennium and it is called dispensational because it is founded in the doctrines of dispensationalism.
Historical premillennialists place the return of Christ just before the millennium and just after a time of great apostasy and tribulation. After the millennium, Satan will be loosed and Gog and Magog will rise against the kingdom of God; this will be immediately followed by the final judgment. While similar in some respects to the dispensational variety (in that they hold to Christ's return being previous the establishment of a thousand-year earthly reign), historical premillennialism differs in significant ways (notably in their method of interpreting Scripture).
The postmillennialist believes that the millennium is an era (not a literal thousand years) during which Christ will reign over the earth, not from an literal and earthly throne, but through the gradual increase of the Gospel and its power to change lives. After this gradual Christianization of the world, Christ will return and immediately usher the church into their eternal state after judging the wicked. This is called postmillennialism because, by its view, Christ will return after the millennium.
The amillennialist believes that the Kingdom of God was inaugurated at Christ's resurrection (hence the term "inaugurated millennialism") at which point he gained victory over both Satan and the Curse. Christ is even now reigning (hence the term "nunc-millennialism" — nunc means "now") at the right hand of the Father over His church. After this present age has ended, Christ will return and immediately usher the church into their eternal state after judging the wicked. The term "amillennialism" is actually a misnomer for it implies that Revelation 20:1-6 is ignored; in fact, the amillennialist's hermeneutic interprets it (and in fact, much of apocalyptic literature) non-literally.
Chiliasm exists in two forms, Exaggerated [or Crass] Chiliasm and Moderate [or Mitigated] Chiliasm. Proponents of Exaggerated Chiliasm teach that during the MRC there will be sensual pleasures allowed and all will indulge in them. People will neither age nor get sick. The advocates of Moderate Chiliasm say that the pleasures will be of a spiritual nature. The origin of Chiliasm appears to be in the apocryphal writings of the Jews from before Christ which taught of a future time in which humanity will enjoy material goods of every kind; and often some spiritual goods are said to be added to them. Taught about this by Judaism, and interpreting Apocalypse 20 incorrectly, some early members of the Church began to teach Chiliasm, either in Exaggerated or Moderate form. Whereas The Rapture is of recent origin (19th century), Chiliasm goes back to the early Church.
Exaggerated Chiliasm is condemned by all approved theologians as heretical. It stands condemned by the Natural Law, which excludes intemperance and unchastity from the Kingdom of Heaven. It is blasphemous and an insult to Almighty God to assert that Christ, Second Person of the Most Holy Trinity, hypostatically united to a human nature, will found an Earthly Kingdom of libertines which violates His All-Holy Attributes. It's no wonder that even those Fathers of the Church who entertained Chiliastic ideas vigorously condemned this hedonistic species of MRC as heretical.
Moderate Chiliasm is erroneous. It contradicts a truth revealed by God but not certainly proposed as such by the Church. To knowingly hold an erroneous doctrine is a mortal sin directly against the Faith.
Proof: Negatively, the Church has never mentioned in Her authoritative documents and decrees anything about a thousand year Earthly rule by Christ. From the beginning, the One True Church has taught of Christ returning in glory, and then Judging the living and the dead who go immediately to their reward or punishment.
Positively, there have been two decisions on this topic from the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office. In 1941, the Holy Office gave the following response to Archbishop Jacobi of Chile who asked about Chiliasm that was being promoted in his archdiocese: The system of millennialism, even in the mitigated form--namely, the teaching that according to Catholic revelation Christ the Lord will come again before the Last Judgement, whether preceded or not by the resurrection of many just persons, bodily to this Earth in order to reign--cannot be taught safely. Your Excellency should take great care lest the said doctrine be taught, propagated, defended, or recommended under any pretext whatsoever, whether verbally or by writings of any kind. This decision was approved and promulgated by order of Pope Pius XII.
Three years later, in 1944, the Holy Office responded to the following question submitted for a decision: "What should be thought about the system of mitigated millennialism, which teaches that Christ the Lord, before the Last Judgement, whether preceded or not by the resurrection of many just persons, will come into this world visibly in order to reign." Response of the Holy Office: The system of mitigated millennialism cannot be safely taught. This decision was also approved and promulgated by order of Pope Pius XII. Unlike the response of 1941, the Holy Office condemns mitigated millennialism even if taught as a theory and not "according to Catholic revelation," and even if the so-called MRC is "visible" (an apparition of Christ) and not Bodily. Hence, all forms of mitigated millennialism (moderate chiliasm) stand condemned.
MRC Rejected by Scripture
The Bible nowhere speaks about a MRC. It so joins the general resurrection of the dead and the Last Judgement, which is followed by the immediate execution of the sentence, with the Second Coming of Christ, that it leaves no place for a thousand year kingdom. After the Last Judgement there is no thousand year kingdom for the just, but an eternal one (St. Matthew 25:34). After the resurrection of the dead on the last day (St. John 6:39) there will be on that same day the Last Judgement (St. John 14:48) and the immediate bestowal of reward or punishment ( 1 Thessalonians 4:15).
Apocalypse chapter 20 does nothing to prove Chiliasm. Both St. Augustine and Pope St. Gregory the Great interpret it thus: The imprisonment of Satan refers to Christ's first coming, and his temporary loosening to His Second Coming (Parousia) at the time of the Antichrist. Christ's "millennial reign" is with His saints in Heaven, where the blessed reign with Him until the resurrection of the dead on the Last Day. Similarly, the term "first death" refers to physical death, and "second death" refers to eternal damnation. The number "one thousand" need not be literal, but indicates an indefinite period time of considerable length. Many Catholic exegetes accept this interpretation.
MRC Rejected by Sacred Tradition
Despite appearances to the contrary, Chiliasm has no foundation in Tradition. Some early Christians held to Chiliasm, but it was rejected by the Fathers. It was accepted by Tertullian only after he became a heretic. St. Justin Martyr and St. Irenaeus wrote about Chiliasm as a mere personal opinion stated as such. St. Jerome mentions "the fable of a thousand years," and St. Augustine, who at first admitted Chiliasm, subsequently rejected it as false. The great theologian Franzelin in his work De Divina Traditione et Scriptura, , writes, "Therefore, in general, given the constant and firm consensus of the Fathers and Doctors at least from the 5th century up to our own time, there can be no doubt that they rejected this opinion [Chiliasm]."
If any Protestant, or Vatican II sect member, tells you about "the rapture" and the "Millennial Rule of Christ" which will follow, don't you believe it. Contrary to a popular series of books, we need not worry about being "Left Behind," but rather we must focus on not being led astray. "But he that shall persevere to the end, he shall be saved." (St. Matthew 24:13).
Great post ! The question of the end times is interesting and it is better to refer to what the One True Church teaches on these things than to listen to the false prophets which abound in these times of apostasy.ReplyDelete
The stuff out there about the End Times is both prolific and mostly heretical. You're wise to stick to the pre-Vatican II approved theologians.
Just want to wish a happy feast day of St. Emerentiana (Jan 23rd.) to all the Feeneyites today.ReplyDelete
Hello Introibo and Lee:Delete
Great comment, Lee!
Do most of the SSPV clergy and laypeople that you know OPPOSE Feeneyism?
Thank you. Anonymous
Yes, but you know the malevolent, misfit "monks," Fred and Bobby Dimond, will explain how she was "really baptized with water." Feeneyites just make it up as they go along!
Yes. Every parishoner I ever met there (with one exception who is now deceased) were correctly against Feeneyism. The SSPV will (correctly) withhold Communion from a known Feeneyite.
God Bless you both,
Who was the Theologian Sagues?Are his writings available in english or only latin.Do you have his complete works?
Fr. Joseph Sagues was a brilliant and prolific theologian. It would be hard to get all his works, although I have many in my library. He wrote a great 8 volume series with several other theologians called "Sacrae Theologiae Summa." His writings do not appear in ALL the volumes. That multi-volume work has been re-printed in English by "Keep the Faith."
The complete set will run you around $200-$300. It is well worth the cost, but it is advanced theology, not for a beginner. "Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma" by theologian Ott is in one volume and is perfect if you're starting out--if not, invest in Sacrae Theologiae Summa!
A much needed and excellent post. Thank you!ReplyDelete
Thank you, my friend!
Again, an excellent article. In our blog, we discussed the Millenarist issue in this article (in Spanish): https://wwwmileschristi.blogspot.com/2017/04/el-milenarismo-terror-de-los-teologos.htmlReplyDelete
PD. Blessed feast of St. Ildephonsus of Toledo.
Miles Christi Resistens,Delete
You do a great service to the Church by spreading the truth in Spanish! May you continue in His work with much success.
Thank you Introibo for the info about the writings of Father Joseph Sagues.I will put an order in for them.I am an advanced student for theology books.ReplyDelete
I have the set of books by Father Pohle.Glad they were published.
Can you give a list of writings for advanced students on the subject of the endtimes.
Any tome of Dogmatic Theology will contain a section on Eschatology. I have some other works, but I need to do some digging in my library. Off the top of my head, one of the most pithy and orthodox treatments of the End Times (the best, in my opinion), is from theologian Huchede, "History of Antichrist" written in 1884, and republished since.
Gotta love the Internet's ability to catalogue: https://archive.org/details/HuchedeHistoryAntiChristBESTVERSION/mode/2upDelete
Here it is. YOu can borrow it. "History of Antichrist"
I was just listening to a sermon by a Traditional priest.A excellent point he made.Good spiritual reading is priceless for your soul.How true.We should read everyday.ReplyDelete
P.S How large is your library Introibo?
As of now, just over 6,000 titles and growing!
Hello Introibo and readersReplyDelete
A blessed new year to you all.
Have you had time Introibo to watch the Catholic Family Podcast -Toalism vs Cassiciacum.I thought it was very good and agree with everything Father said.I don't think many sedevacantist's would hold to this theory.
God bless you
I have not watched it yet, but I hope to do so soon!
Just watched video on youtube called Novus Ordo cringe compilation no 666,666,666 by Novus Ordo Watch.
I like one of the comments-can you imagine the spiritual blindness one must have to attend such a service.It is a warning not to be seduced by the decieving spirits lest you end up the same way and destined for hell.
God will not be mocked.Thanks be to God for our true traditional bishops and priests.The true church has been driven to the catacombs.
The Novus Bogus is a sham--a celebration of humanity's ability to worship themselves. We are in the catacombs and may never come out until the return of Christ.
The "cringe" video isn't by Novus Ordo Watch, it's by Jeremiah Alphonsus.Delete
This blog post is actually rather timely, given recent back-and-forth I've had with some "PTR" (pre-Trib Rapture) folks in other corners of the Internet. The intensity with which they are wedded to the concept — that the faithful will be spared from the worst of the suffering in the Last Days before the Second Coming — would almost be sad if they didn't show so many inconsistencies in doing so.ReplyDelete
They mock those citing other authorities, then turn around and cite John Nelson Darby (the former Anglican, with no extant evidence that he was formally trained in theology at university, who resigned from his clerical status in protest of recognizing George IV as King of Ireland; who only afterwards came to believe that the kingdom described by Isaias was different from the Church, as a form of post hoc rationalization; who was one of the founders of the 'Plymouth Brethren', popularizing both Dispensationalism and PTR) as an "excellent scholar" chosen to unveil "God's plan"!
They decry disbelief in PTR as the sole domain of Catholicism; then when you provide well-sourced arguments from Orthodox/Protestant/Reformed/Evangelical authors to show that such is not the case, they say those authors aren't authoritative.
They deride those who rely on anything other than Scripture; then when you provide arguments showing that (per the meaning of the original language of the inspired authors) their interpretation holds no water, they say you are not open to God's Word.
Little wonder that St. Peter warned us against private interpretation!
(I also have noticed that belief in PTR seems to correlate with belief in another error called 'trichotomism': that the human is composed of body, soul, and spirit. One such adherent had the gall to call the soul a conglomerate of mind, will, and emotion: a mere 'behavior mechanism' of the flesh!)
Well-stated! The division of body, soul, and spirit, has also been used by the Jehovah's Witnesses sect. Thank you for your informational and thoughtful comment.
Three questions for you
*Over the years where have you brought most of your books from?
*Have you brought any books from Angelus press?Should one be careful from reading their own SSPX writings.
*Do you have the recent book published by the CMRI sisters by the Radecki Fathers called Vatican Two exposed as counterfeit Catholicism?
I agree with the above comment about one would have to have spiritual blindness to not see the Vatican Two sect for what it is.A false and apostate church.
Kind regards and prayers.God bless,Thomas
1. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, former Catholic Universities and seminaries, now occupied by the Vatican II sect, threw out (or sold very cheaply) all or most pre-V2 books. I would go and collect them. After that, one of my main sources (but by no means exclusive) was the wonderful Preserving Christian Publications, here in upstate New York. I highly recommend them.
2. Yes. Some works by Angelus Press are very good, and many are tainted by R&R errors. One must be very careful when reading their books.
3. Yes. It is excellent.
Someone is asking who Ord Con Bishop William Greene? Anyone know?ReplyDelete
Ordained by Bp. Hesson. Consecrated by Bp. Slupski.Delete
Andrew.I thought Bp Henneberry ordained him?Where do you attend Mass i.e.independent,CMRI,SSPV?ReplyDelete
I attend CSPV mission, Resistance-SSPX chapel,and occasionally a Thuc line chapel when I can make the drive.Delete
What about you?
Did you ever read anything by the late Father Terence Fulham who was at our Lady of Fatima church in Spring Hill,FL.He spent 4 years in the SSPX seminary before joining Mater Dei seminary and then ordained by Bishop Pivarunas.2 years after being ordained,he rejected the sedevacantist poistion and started to trash CMRI,etc.He was made a "bishop" by a "Bishop" John Simmons(a active homosexual) and made the claim Ratzinger was 100% Catholic.OLF church was a very old traditional mission going back years.Fulham must of driven folk away because when he suddenly died back in 2017,the church board sold the building and gave the large library to Bishop Sanborn and funds to the CMRI.
Does anyone else know much about Fulham or had met him
Any info would be much appreciated.
I don't know much, but the little I do know is not good. See the commenter below.
Wow! So,the Spring Hill chapel is now defunct?Delete
Having done a search,there is a OLF mission in Brooksville,FL for the 1962 missal but they are under the Novus Ordo.Don't know if they were ever part of Fulham's group.Father Fulham was very srange and unstable.Bishop Pivarunas must of been disappointed having ordained him.Hard to believe Fulham would go to someone like Simmons in England to be made a bishop.Pages could be written on him.The late bishop Dolan told me in person to pray that God will have mercy on Father Fulhams poor soul..His burial and Mass was said by a Old Catholic priest.I'is a very sad story. Perhaps others can offer their comments.Thanks Intriobo.A WARNING to all,please keep the Faith.God blessReplyDelete
I hope God had mercy on the soul of Terence Fulham. Bishops do their best to ordain worthy me, and of course, when someone ordained leaves the faith and/or does something gravely immoral, it is a huge disappointment.
Pre-Vatican II, there was a very holy and well respected bishop--Cardinal Michael Von Faulhaber, Ordinary of Munich. He ordained two men of note to the priesthood: the future Bishop Blaise Kurz who stood with Fr. DePauw against the Robber Council, and the future "pope"--Joseph Ratzinger.
Archbishop Lefebvre Ordained a man who tried to kill JP2.Delete
That's why attacks on Bishop Thuc are childish & literally stupid.
Bishops aren't responsible for the personal behavior of Priests they Ordain.
God bless -Andrew
What is gog & magogReplyDelete
"Gog and Magog" are an allusion to Ezekiel 38, where Gog is the symbolic name of a conquering prince of a land symbolically called Magog. In Ezekiel, Gog attacks Israel but is defeated.
At first glance of this article, I knew I would have to take notes, as I’ve heard about the rapture frequently in the past. A second “second” coming doesn’t seem to make any sense, for starters. Thank you for the post, and for providing proofs and Church teachings on this topic. I especially like the reference from Peter 1:20, "Understanding this first, that no prophecy of scripture is made by private interpretation."
P.S. I enjoyed your Strangers #19 post on Chopra, and the commentary. I remember him enjoying support from various celebrities. That post also reminds me of Joe Dispenza, who I learned about more recently. I think he is also involved with this business, in general, with healing through quantum mechanics, visualization, and all sorts of things, if memory serves. I quickly looked him up to get his name correct, and the first thing I saw on his website looked like an image with occult associations – but I am no expert. I think all of these “healing methods”, as well as “meditations” like the holoapp (which seems to be pushed hard on youtube ads by “catholics” like Mark Wahlburg) are related, somehow.
You are correct. Many alternative "healing methods" are occult. And everyone would do well to remember the words of Scripture "Understanding this first, that no prophecy of scripture is made by private interpretation," lest they be deceived.
1. Do you think that it's currently okay to attend Mass offered by Bishop Sanborn's priests?
2. Some years back there was a Novus Ordo priest named Lawrence Smith in the Diocese of Davenport, Iowa.. He left to become traditional, but I don't know if he was traditionally ordained. I do know from the Internet that he spoke in 2006 at a conference sponsored by the(Feeneyite) St. Benedict Center in New Hampshire.
Do you or any of your readers know what happened to him, and if he is currently Feeneyite?
Thank you. Anonymous.
2. I don't know if he's been validly ordained or if he's truly Catholic. I have not heard of him. If any of my readers know, please send the information to me via the comments so I may publish it.
*In your library,do you have many books on the priesthood and religious life?
*Fr Fulham was a utter disgrace.He wrote many things that were distorted and very wrong.He spread utter garbage back in 2007 that Mt St Michaels(CMRI) would collapse and be sold because those evil sisters went over to the Novus Ordo and all the other sisters and lay folk would follow.A very strange and mentally unstable man.
1. I have some, but not many, books on the priesthood and religious life as vocations.
2. Everything I know and have heard of Terence Fulham is negative. He has gone to Judgement, and I can only hope he repented before that happened.
Thanks Introibo for your last talk on Kevin's podcast.I knew him when he was in school at Omaha,NE.Your talks are just great.Look forward to more.God bless brotherReplyDelete
He's a great Traditionalist Catholic gentleman! I will continue with my series on the occult.
WOW!6000 books and growing.You must have several rooms to hold all your books.ReplyDelete
I live in a very large house and it contains a library that takes up most of one of the floors. It is almost at capacity!!
Does anyone know anything about a bishop Louis Montelongo in Florida?Where was his seminary training and who made him a bishop?Thanks
I don't know but if any of my readers do, please pass the information on via these comments.
Anonymous January 26,2023 5:36ReplyDelete
He might be in the Taylor line which may be valid?His assistant Father Derrington once was with Bishop Sanborn as a seminarian then left to join Father Fulham for a while then left and disappeared.We wonder who ordained(?) him?
No one seems to know who Ordained & Consecrated Bishop Montelongo.Delete
God bless -Andrew
Just watched a video sent to me.Go to youtube and type in - post vatican 2 indian christianity.Is 6 mins long.Listen to what these apostates are saying.Talk about spiritual blindness and being led by satan on the wide road to hell.Did you know in the Indian Novus Ordo they have a hindu rite "Mass" What an abomination. God bless you and readersReplyDelete
The Novus Bogus is the abomination of desolation. Paganism added to the intrinsic evil already present in the rite. I wish I could say I was surprised, but I'm not.
A excellent subject.Over the years I have been sick of listening to the garbage that some protestants have been telling folk about the endtimes.Long overdue writing.Thank you so much.
On the subject of Liturgy,do you have the writings of Father Fortescue on the Eastern Catholic Rites.The Maronite and the Chaldean Rites have also been Novus Ordo Wrecked.Father would be shocked.
Kind regards and God bless
Thank you, my friend, for the kind words! Yes, I have all of Fr. Fortesque's writings. Vatican II destroyed everything.
Are you aware of a sedevacantist priest in Brisbane,Australia who left the Novus Ordo some time ago and went to a bp Merril Adamson(Thuc-line) to have his orders made valid.Google Father Steven Hartley and St benedicts latin mass chapel.Pleased he had the courage to get out of the apostate church.Let us all pray for this priest.JamesReplyDelete
I'll check it out. Thank you for the information.
May I ask you Introibo,do you have some books in your library that are out of print and you would call real gems.Can you give several examples.Thanks.ReplyDelete
Yes. A Latin copy of the Summa from the 17th century, an altar Missal from 1843, and a complete set of the only all-English Breviary approved pre-Vatican II (1950) with Imprimatur by Francis Spellman of NYC.Delete
On the subject of reading,what year would you say would be a cut of period for old books.Do you accept anything say after 1962?
We are glad that PCP publications and other publishers are printing those old books.Please God may they publish more writings that are out of print.
God bless you brother
My cut-off (so to speak) is 1963--before anything overtly heretical came out of the Robber Council. The best are books 1871-1958 from after the Vatican Council of 1870 and until the end of the reign of the last known pope, Pope Pius XII
About the Rapture, you can read a post from Steven Speray here:ReplyDelete
Up there it says "living and the dead Whom he will send" doesn't whom refer to all men and so small letter 'W'? Thanks.